Catholic historians had an interest in showing how much reform occurred before and apart from the activities of the Protestant reformers of the 16th century. InLuther was tried before the Imperial Diet of Worms and was eventually excommunicated; what began, as an internal reform movement had become a fracture in western Christendom.
He also ridiculed the popular superstitions associated with the cult of the saints and their relics, religious pilgrimages, and the like. His primary source of inspiration for reform was the Bible.
The above considerations show that the first Protestant principle, free judgment, never influenced the Protestant masses at large. About this page APA citation. The Diet of Speyer infor example, subjected the Anabaptists to the penalty of death with the concurrence of Catholics and Lutherans.
In the 16th century Protestant referred primarily to the two great schools of thought that arose in the Reformation, the Lutheran and the Reformed.
It is moreover contrary to Scriptureto traditionto reason. His order, that of the Augustinian eremites, was a strict reform congregation dedicated to prayer, study, and the ascetic life.
Because of subsequent persecution the Hutterites also migrated to the New World. Evidently, Christ, who was without sin, so identified himself with sinful humanity that he felt estranged from God.
Inthe Reformation began with Luther and caught on instantly. In he was faced with an army of occupation in northern England demanding money as a part of its settlement.
The Mennonites survived partly by acceding to military service in Holland, partly by migration first to eastern Europe and then to the Americas. The pestilences and plagues of the 14th century had bred an inordinate fear of death, which led to the exploitation of simple people by a church that was, in effect, offering salvation for sale.
This resulted in the Half-Way Covenant of and that permitted baptized, moraland orthodox persons to share in the privileges of church membership except for partaking of communion. The Hutteritesfollowers of Jakob Hutter diedwere allowed to establish themselves on the estates of tolerant Moravian nobles who accepted excellent craftsmanship in field and shop in lieu of military service.
So the secular powers were called on for help; the Church was placed at the service of the State, its authority, its wealthits institutions all passed into the hands of kings, princes, and town magistrates. It would be well into the last two decades of Elizabeth's long reign before it could be said with confidence that Protestantism was the religion of the majority in England.
There followed three inconclusive wars. From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas.
Progress in religious toleration As regards Protestant influence on the general progress of civilization since the origin of Protestantism we must mark off at least two periods: Based on the notion that Jesus and the saints had built up a treasury of merit that could be shared with worthy Christians, the indulgence at first applied only to penalties imposed by the church on earth.
Execution of Jan Hus in Konstanz The results were unique. The truth of the whole matter is this: He sought to benefit the people at large by curtailing the powers of both Church and State.
Had Elizabeth died early as she nearly did infrom smallpoxEngland too might have plunged into the same religious civil war convulsing neighbouring lands on the Continent.
Pamphlets by John MiltonRoger Williamsand other Puritans pleaded for greater freedom of the press and of religion. Andrews castle had to surrender.
Thus in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there was no more priest-ridden country in the world than Presbyterian Scotland. This is quite clear from the words of Scripture:. The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook.
It was part of the wider European Protestant Reformation that took place from the sixteenth century. The Reformation was the culmination of this process, which, in the empire, took place in nearly all princely territories and in most independent cities, where governments brought the administration of the church under political direction.
Sources. For controversial matter see any Catholic or Protestant textbooks. The Catholic standard work is BELLARMINE, Disputations de Controversiis Christianoe fidei etc.
(4 vols., Rome, ); on the Protestant side: GERHARD, Loci Theologici, etc. (9 vols., Berlin, ).For the historical, political, and social history of Protestantism the best works are: DÖLLINGER, Die Reformation (3.
Harold Berman's masterwork narrates the interaction of evolution and revolution in the development of Western law. This new volume explores two successive transformations of the Western legal tradition under the impact of the sixteenth-century German Reformation and the seventeenth-century English Revolution, with particular emphasis on Lutheran and Calvinist influences.
The Reformation split the Church into Catholic and Protestant factions, creating two roads to salvation - both of which claimed to be true. So. The Reformation (more fully the Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.
It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in and lasted until the end of the.The protestant reformation and its influence on germany england and scotland